Definition: A beta-alanine supplement to enhance my muscles’ ability to buffer acid production during high-intensity exercise;
Also known as trimethylglycine. This ingredient plays a role in metabolic processes through donation of a methyl group (one carbon metabolism) as for example the conversion of homocysteine to the amino acid L-methionine.
L-Carnosine is a dipeptide consisting of ß-alanine linked at its carboxyl terminus to the amino group of L-histidine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine). It is synthesized by the enzyme carnosine synthetase, and broken down by carnosinase. It is widely distributed in tissues, and is present at particularly high concentrations in skeletal muscle and the olfactory lobe of the brain. Carnosine has a number of important properties, including antioxidant activity, ability to chelate divalent cations such as copper, neutralization of acids (such as lactic acid), and the inhibition of nonenzymic glycosylation of proteins. It is found in long-lived tissues in surprisingly high amounts (up to 20 mM in human muscle) and has been shown to delay aging in cultured cells. When added to cultures of human lung and foreskin fibroblasts, the dipeptide extended cell survival and increased maximal cell division potential while also inducing a more juvenile phenotype in senescent human and rodent cells. This suggests that other properties of the dipeptide are involved. There are suggestions that the concentration of tissue-associated L-carnosine declines with age. L-Carnosine and related dipeptides have been shown to prevent peroxidation of model membrane systems, suggesting that they represent water-soluble counterparts to lipid-soluble antioxidants such as a-tocopherol in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. Other roles ascribed to this dipeptide include acting as a neurotransmitter in the modulation of enzyme activities.
L-Carnosine significantly reduces the formation of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OH dG) in cultured cells, thus demonstrating protection of DNA. The presumptive anti-senescent effect of L-carnosine may be related to this inhibition. L-Carnosine also inhibits protein carbonyl formation. A common molecular indication of cellular aging is the accumulation of aberrant proteins, especially polypeptides bearing carbonyl (CO) groups.
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CAS number 107-95-9
IUPHAR ligand 2365
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C3H7NO2
Molar mass 89.09 g mol−1
Appearance white bipyramidal crystals
Density 1.437 g/cm3 (19 °C)
Melting point 207 °C; 405 °F; 480 K (decomposes)
Solubility in water 54.5 g/100 mL
Solubility soluble in methanol. diethyl ether, acetone
log P -3.05
Acidity (pKa) 3.63
Main hazards Irritant
LD50 1000 mg/kg (rat, oral)
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group (i.e., two atoms away, see Figure 1). The IUPAC name for β-alanine is 3-aminopropanoic acid. Unlike its counterpart α-alanine, β-alanine has no stereo center.
Can you use Advocare for CrossFit workouts? yes